We all know that the digital modern computers we use today started to be made in the 1990s. However, a brilliant idea did not come to someone’s mind and the computer was not invented. The invention of the computer was actually hundreds of years ago. happened. Moreover, without using even a single metal cable, only with the help of a pen and a few papers. invention of the computer happened.
Like all scientific studies The invention of the computer did not belong to a single person. The computer system, which was built brick by brick by different scientists for hundreds of years, turned into a machine only after the Second World War. Invention of the computer, actually has a story that shows how humanity is based on common values. Let’s take a closer look at the historical journey of computers, which are indispensable today.
The first computers were real humans:
- Gaspard de Prony
Yes, the word Computer, which means computer in English, was used for people for many years. A team usually made up of women, on different topics they were creating tables to organize the data. Tax calculations, war strategies, scientific studies and many different studies were carried out thanks to the tables created by these computer people.
This system lasted in this way until a mission given by Napoleon at the beginning of the 18th century. Napoleon Bonaparte, Gaspard de Prony was commissioned to develop an algorithm for this system. It is not known how successful this algorithm was, which was established to improve the astronomical calculations of the Paris Observatory, but it is certain that it inspired Charles Babbage, who is known as the father of the computer.
Creating the first computer system:
- Charles Babbage
Mathematician, philosopher, engineer and inventor Charles Babbage was tired of using humans as computers and a system that will make much more accurate calculations had started working on it. He developed a system called Difference Engine, based on the principle of finite differences, using only addition and subtraction from the four operations. Unfortunately, this system did not turn into a machine.
Despite everything Babbage didn’t give up and developed the Analytical Engine, which he aimed to do much more complex calculations, this time using the other operations of the four operations, multiplication and division. Unfortunately, the Analytical Engine did not turn into a machine either, but the pages of designs made by Charles Babbage at that time helped to learn what a real computer means.
In Babbage’s drafts what we know as the processor todaythere was a logical unit for performing arithmetic calculations, the conditional control structure that we know as programming language today, data storage which we know as memory today. In other words, all of the internal hardware that makes up computers today was drafted line by line in the 19th century.
First analog computer is produced:
- William Thomson
Created by Charles Babbage but computer system that remains only a sketch, was brought to life by physicist William Thomson and his brother James Thomson. In 1876, the two brothers built the first analog computer that could perform complex calculations and predict the tides in a particular location.
The second device they made was with the help of some discs. who managed to solve differential equations through integration was a more advanced computer. Vannevar Bush at MIT made this first computer truly perfect in 1928. This instrument, which works as a differential analyzer, can also be considered as the first real computer.
The invention of the computer gains momentum during the Second World War:
- Alan Tureng
The invention of the computer is a process, not a moment. The owner of the most important signature in this process was in the Second World War. By succeeding in deciphering the crypto codes of the Nazis English hero Alan Tureng, who played a major role in defeating the Nazis. We have told the tragic life story of Alan Tureng in our article here.
As a student, Turing sketched out in detail what a digital computer should look like. However, this remained a draft. The Automatic Computing Engine, which was able to perform binary operations, invented during the war, was able to decode the Enigma code that the Nazis had encrypted their messages to. This engine did not have a single function like the first analog computers. It could be used for more than one function by changing the program.
The inventor of the digital computer, the Nazis:
- Konrad Zuse
Just like the British, the German Nazis were also working on technology. Engineer Konrad Zuse, , which was accepted as the first digital computer in 1941. has succeeded in developing a fully functional, programmable and automatic device. Zuse built this computer, called the Z3, in his garage with old phone parts. However, the German government cut its support, saying that this device had no strategic importance.
In the same period, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry in the United States, they developed a computer working with vacuum tubes. In the same year, Tommy Flowers and Max Newman in England developed the first electronic, digital and programmable computer, the Colossus, in order to decipher Nazi messages. However, none of them had a system drafted by Alan Turing.
And finally the invention of the computer is complete:
We said that the invention of the computer is a process. This process was completed in 1945 in the United States. The first real computer to have the 4 basic structures determined by Alan TuringA result of a study conducted secretly by the US military at the University of Pennsylvania.
The purpose of this computer named ENIAC, developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert was to study the feasibility of the hydrogen bomb. Therefore, it was programmable multiple times. Covering an area of 167 square meters, this computer weighed 30 tons, consumed 150 kilowatts of energy and had 20,000 vacuum tubes.
Electronic memories were soon forgotten, vacuum tubes turned into transistors and eventually microchips. ENIAC would have considered it the first computer had it not been decided to rebuild the Z3 computer after it was detonated during a bombing during the war. If, in 1998, Mexican computer scientist Raúl Rojas Hadn’t he examined Z3 and tracked down Alan Turingwe would not even know about the Turing system today.
On the question of who invented the computer we examined the process of the invention of the computer and the scientists who had their signatures in this important process. If hundreds of years ago, a scientist had not drawn the first drafts with the help of a pen and some paper, we would probably not have the chance to write or read this article today.