For the first time with the question of what is scholastic thoughtyou may have encountered it in high school history and philosophy classes. The reason why this question enters the field of history is that it is one of the most common philosophical thoughts in hundreds of worlds. From the darkness of the Middle Ages to the light of the new age, everywhere scholastic thought
It is possible to encounter . The biggest reason for this is that instead of seeking novelty, it tries to explain the existing with the divine.
Philosophy in general is a skeptical and questioning field. But scholastic thought does not question and does not doubt. Because, according to him, there is already a divine truth and the purpose of man is to understand and try to solve this divine truth. Consisting of 3 main periods What is scholastic thought, how did it arise, how did it spread, we explained the answers to the curious questions in all details.
What is scholastic thought?
Latin for school schola
derived from scholasticus
scholastic thought from the term , literally means school philosophy. The reason it means this is because it was believed that the truth already existed in the Middle Ages and that this truth could only be learned through philosophy lessons given in schools.
Scholastic thought is a theology-based movement. So that truth is a decision from the heavens and philosophy and it is believed that these truths should be understood. In this context, scholastic thought does not create a new thought. It is not skeptical or inquisitive. On the contrary, it is against anyone who doubts the knowledge that comes with divine truth.
The clearest definition of scholastic thought was given by the Christian Saint Augustine and ‘I believe in order to understand. ‘ said. Scholastic thought in the light of the information it believes to be true. aims to confirm or refute existing facts.So even if something is true, if it is not true to the divine, it must be refuted. Faith is essential.
When did scholastic thought arise?
The foundations of scholastic thought were laid between the 2nd and 8th centuries AD. Known as the Christian Fathers was founded by the patristic philosophy created by the early Christians. However, it was only in the 9th century that this idea was fully systematized and named.
While Plato stands out in patristic philosophy, Aristotle stands out in scholastic thought. The biggest reason for this Aristotelian philosophy sees thinkers as wise. This philosophy movement, which is already based on theology, has of course found it appropriate to call people who think about faith as wise.
The purpose of the emergence of scholastic thought in schools the so-called seven free arts is the teaching of theology along with grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. In later times, scholastic thought was not only used for this purpose, but turned into a general school doctrine.
Scholastic thought periods:
- Early scholastic thought / 9th and 13th century
- Ascension scholastic thought / 13th and 14th century
- Latest scholastic thought / 14th and 15th century
Early scholastic thought:
The first thinker of scholastic thought that emerged with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 800s is Johannes Scottus. scott, Creating a neo-Platonian way of thinking It spread mysticism in the Middle Ages. He argued that God is unknown but can be understood through symbols.
In the 1000s, Anselmus said that God was the most perfect and in accordance with the principle of non-contradiction argued that it is not possible for it not to exist. Roscelinus, who lived in the same period, established nominalism. This concept is against realism and argues that people act in line with a common thought. That is, it speaks of a fundamental, divine power.
Ascension-era scholastic thought:
In the 12th century, Arabic philosophy began to spread and Islamic scholasticism emerged. The Arab philosopher Ibn Sina played an important role in this spread. Like Avicenna, another Aristotelian Arab thinker is Ibn Rushd. Ibn Rushd belief as another form of knowledge of reason commented.
In the same period, the Jewish thinker Moses Maimenides also interpreted Aristotle and popularized it in his region. Italian mystic thinker Bonaventura interpreted Augustine and Aristotle
He argued that and knowledge is to unite on the truth that will be known.
The scholastic star of the Middle Ages was Albertus Magnus. Magnus; Combining Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy and Jewish philosophy has revealed a systematic structure. Thomas of Aquinas, a disciple of Magnus, said, ‘To know in order to believe. ‘, and this thought was accepted by the Catholic Church at that time.
Latest scholastic thought:
In the last period of scholastic thought, the debates between religious sects and Enlightenment studies that prepared the renaissance were effective. The star of the last period was Johannes Duns Scottus, who systematized nominalism and argued that particular objects are real and universal objects are completely fabrications.
In this period, experiment was put on the basis of knowledge. This knowledge is faith-based, as the concept of God is never experienced. So concepts such as eternity and God can never be known. At this point, belief and knowledge are completely separated from each other. This was the end of scholastic thought.16. Although scholastic thought seems to have come to an end with the Renaissance in the 19th century, it is possible to encounter people who still support this thought even today.
Why was scholastic thought destroyed?
The Middle Ages, when scholastic thought was active in Europe, was a terrible time. People are starving,Social injustice was at its peak, clergy were deceiving people by imposing ideas that were not suitable for any religion, and somehow every truth had to be adapted to religion.
Scientific studies that laid the foundation of the Renaissance opened the eyes of people. With the invention of the printing press, religious books were translated into people’s own language and religion began to be understood by the public.People began to question the things they weren’t allowed to question, and they realized that they were being deceived by a handful of religious merchants trying to fill their coffers.
Religion is a relationship between man and God. It is only a way of thinking that befits the darkness of the Middle Ages to forcefully spread this to all walks of life in line with certain interests and to lie to people with pseudoscience and one-sided philosophy. Fortunately, we’re in the space age now and we don’t come across this kind of thinking too often, do we?
We answered questions such as what is scholastic thought, how it emerged and why it was destroyed. Philosophy and science arising from philosophy,created by humans to seek the truth. Let’s use our minds to the fullest.